agreed overall minimum standards in teaching and learning processes and learning
iv. Accommodate the political and administrative restructuring the education sector
in line with the identified needs and the federal context and to ensure sustainable
financing and strong financial management by introducing a cost-sharing modality
between central, provincial and local governments; and
v. Mainstream comprehensive school safety and disaster risk reduction in the
education sector by strengthening school-level disaster management and resilience
amongst schools, students and communities and to ensure that schools are
protected from conflict.
The Plan will develop physical, socio-emotional, cognitive, spiritual, and moral potential
for all children. The Plan ensures school readiness and universal access to quality basic
education, and promotes life skills and value-based education. Additionally, secondary
education will continue to make students ready for work by developing skilled human
resources, provide options between technical and general secondary education
opportunities, strengthen institution links, and facilitate the transition to high education.
V. CHILD LABOR
Even though child labor is illegal, an estimated 1.6 million children ages 5-17 are
in the work force in Nepal. The majority of them are under the age of 14 and most are girls.
Girls work more often than boys because, according to the family’s belief, a boy’s future
is likely to represent the family’s future so they are typically enrolled in school. Many
children continue to be the breadwinners for their families. There is an unspoken agreement
between parents, employers, and children which allows child labor to continue. The years
of child labor that are engrained in the nation allow for this to continue without penalties
for employers and parents. The practice of child labor has been going on for years, and the
government is working on eliminating the extreme forms of child labor, even though
everyday child labor continues to slip by unnoticed and unpoliced.
In 2017, Nepal made moderate efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor
by passing the Labor Act. This Act prohibits forced labor and sets penalties for forced labor
violations. A child labor monitoring system was implemented to survey forced labor among
child and adult workers. Children in Nepal engage in the worst forms of child labor,
specifically sexual exploitation, brick production, masonry, and garment industries. As the
current law stands, the minimum age for work in Nepal is 15, and 17 if engaging in
hazardous work. However, currently, forced labor, child trafficking, commercial sexual
exploitation of children, or use of children in illicit activities are not prohibited. The Labor
Act was implemented to quash the harsh working conditions that many child laborers find
themselves in, which often lead to premature ageing, malnutrition, depression, physical
and mental illness, and drug dependency. Child labor employers do whatever is necessary
to make children in the workforce invisible and are able to exercise complete control over
them. Children work in extremely degrading conditions, completely undermining the
principles and fundamental rights that are based in human nature.