be prosecuted under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO)
b) The TVPRA of 2005 included a pilot program for sheltering minors who are survivors
of human trafficking, as well as grant programs to assist state and local law enforcement
in combating trafficking.14 This law ensures that U.S. government contracts are not
made with individuals or organizations that promote or engage in human trafficking.15
The TVPRA of 2005 also included a penalty of forfeiture of property upon conviction
of human trafficking offenses.16
c) The TVPRA of 2008 required that the U.S. government provide information about
workers' rights to anyone applying for work- and education-based visas.17 This
reauthorization also enhanced criminal sanctions against traffickers and expanded
definitions of various types of trafficking to make prosecution easier.18 Further, the
2008 reauthorization expanded the protections available with the T-Visa19 and provided
additional protections for unaccompanied minors who might be trafficking victims.
d) The TVPRA of 2013 amended the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of
2013 by adding provisions to prevent child marriage and enhanced protections for
children exploited abroad by U.S. citizens and permanent residents.20
Along with the TVPA and its reauthorizations, other federal laws on human trafficking
have been enacted in the United States in recent years. The Preventing Sex Trafficking and
Strengthening Families Act of 2014 (PSTSFA) was enacted to address the incidence of sex
trafficking among youth in the foster care system. Specifically, the law requires welfare services
to identify, document, and determine services for children and youth at risk of sex trafficking.21
Under the PSTSFA, welfare services must also report the number of children and youth who are
sex trafficking victims to law enforcement authorities and the Secretary of the U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services (DHHS).22 The Secretary of DHHS is required to send this report to
Congress and make it available on the DHHS website.23
Additionally, the Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2015 (JVTA) established a
domestic trafficking victims’ fund to support victim assistance grants.24 It also increased restitution
and compensation for trafficked victims.25 Further, the JVTA amended the Runaway and
13 Id. § 5.
14 Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-164, §§ 102, 119 Stat. 3569 (2005)
(codified as amended at 42 U.S.C. §§ 14044a, 14044c (2012)).
15 Id. § 203.
16 Id. § 2428.
17 See William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008, Pub. L. No. 110-457, §§
202–203, 122 Stat. 5044, 5055 (2008) (codified as amended at 8 U.S.C. §§ 1375b–1375c (2012)).
18 Id. §§ 221–22.
19 Id. § 201.
20 Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013, Pub. L. No. 113-4, §§ 103, 1207, 127 Stat. 54, 141 (2013)
(codified at 22 U.S.C. § 7104 (2013)).
21 Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act of 2014, Pub. L. No. 113-183, § 101, 128 Stat. 1919
(2014) (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 671 (2014)).
22 Id. § 102.
24 Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2015, Pub. L. No. 114-22, § 101, 129 Stat. 227, 229 (2015) (codified at 18
U.S.C. § 3014 (2015)).
25 Id. § 105.