64 Children’s Legal Rights Journal [Vol. 39: 1 2019]
protections for youth to access basic services held in appropriate physical conditions.181 There
were also requirements for documentation, debriefing, administrative review, and notification of
parents and attorneys.182 The revised standards on discipline183 focused on behavioral sanctions
other than imposition of locked room time, but retained disciplinary due process requirements for
facilities that had not yet eliminated the practice.184
B. Corrections Organizations and Reducing Room Isolation
National leaders in the juvenile correctional community also expressed concern with the
overuse of room isolation. In 2014, the Council of Juvenile Correctional Administrators
(“Council” or “CJCA”)185 convened a panel of four state agency directors and the administrator of
the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) in a dialogue with fifty
juvenile correctional leaders.186 The group discussed the need to address the use of isolation, the
barriers to changing facility culture, and strategies that the directors had used to reduce the use of
isolation in their facilities.187 The group also spoke about the need for alternative approaches to
managing behavior, and the difficulties they face in changing staff beliefs and attitudes that
isolation is a necessary management tool, despite research showing it is counterproductive and
People working closely with the Council recall that concern with room isolation was “in
the air” and that, even though much of the media attention centered on adults, the implications
were clear for juvenile facilities.189 With a broad consensus among the membership that
corrections should reduce or eliminate room isolation, the Executive Director of CJCA at the time,
Edward J. “Ned” Loughran, commissioned a toolkit to compile information about reforms. The
purpose was to state CJCA’s position on the issue and provide more support for reform efforts
around the country.190
181 Id. at 178–79.
182 JUVENILE DETENTION FACILITY ASSESSMENT, supra note 165, at 179–80.
183 Id. at 181–83.
184 Id. at 181. For additional national standards, see generally AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION, SUMMARY OF
NATIONAL STANDARDS RESTRICTING THE SOLITARY CONFINEMENT OF YOUTH 1, 8 (2018), available at
ment%20of%20Youth.pdf. As of January 2019, proposed changes to the American Correctional Association standards
listed have not yet been finalized.
185 The Council is a membership organization for youth correctional administrators in state and juvenile corrections
systems. See CJCA Membership, COUNCIL OF JUVENILE CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATORS,
http://cjca.net/index.php/aboutus/membership (last visited Jan. 6, 2019). The Council holds meetings throughout the
year for leaders of correctional institutions to meet and provides best practices, research, and technical assistance. See
About Us, COUNCIL OF JUVENILE CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATORS, http://cjca.net/about/ (last visited Jan. 6, 2019).
186 COUNCIL OF JUVENILE CORREC TIONS ADMINIS TRATORS TOOLKIT: REDUCING THE USE OF ISOLATION 1 (Mar. 2015),
[hereinafter REDUCING THE USE OF ISOLATION].
190 Ned Loughran, Ending the Use of Isolation in Youth Detention and Correctional Facilities, CJCA BLOG (July 6,
2016), available at http://www.stopsolitaryforkids.org/articles/ (last visited Jan. 6, 2019).