forced by way of isolation and torture.13 Now, all that stands between him and his execution is
ratification of his sentence by the King.14
Juvenile violent extremist offenders do not imagine one day dying in a suicide bombing.
They are victims of circumstances beyond their control and should be treated as such. Part II of
this paper will give a brief overview of the history of Islamic extremism.15 Part III of this paper
will explain the structure of the Islamic State’s16 educational program and how it influences
children to give their lives to terrorist17 organizations. Next, Part IV will delve into Saudi Arabia’s
legal system and how the country handles juvenile anti-terrorism cases. Finally, Part V will
propose an international response.
II. HISTORY OF ISLAMIC EXTREMISM
The colonial era, failed post-colonial attempts at State formation, and the creation of the
State of Israel induced anti-Western sentiment and movement throughout the Arab and Islamic
world.18 The growth of these nationalist movements, along with the view that terrorism could be
effective in reaching political goals, generated the first phase of modern international terrorism.19
Following Israel’s victory in the 1967 War, Palestinian leaders realized that the Arab world was
unable to confront Israel militarily.20 At the same time, Palestinians drew lessons from
revolutionary movements in Latin America, North Africa, and Southeast Asia, as well as from the
Jewish struggle against Britain in Palestine.21 These movements influenced the Palestinians to
move away from classic guerilla, typically rural-based, warfare toward urban terrorism.22 These
radical Palestinian groups became a model for numerous secular militants and offered lessons for
subsequent ethnic and religious movements.23 For example, the failure of Arab nationalism in the
13 AMNESTY INT’L, supra note 12.
14 Id; “Judgments imposing death…shall only be executed pursuant to a Royal Order to be issued by the King or his
authorized representative.” Law of Crim. Proc. Royal Decree No. (M/39) art. 220(a) (Oct. 16, 2001).
15 Islamic extremism consists of “individuals committed to restructuring political society in accordance with their
vision of Islamic law and willing to use violence to achieve their goals.” See JOHN D. JOHNSON, Analysis of the Sources
of Islamic Extremism, U.S. ARMY COMMAND & GEN. STAFF C. 1, 7 (June 15, 2007),
16 “The Islamic State (IS), also known as the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS or ISIL) is a Salafi-Jihadist militant
organization in Syria and Iraq whose goal is the establishment and expansion of a caliphate.” See Freeman Spogli
Institute for International Studies, The Islamic State, STAN. UNIV., web.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi-
bin/groups/view/1 (last visited Apr. 14, 2017) [hereinafter Freeman Spogli Institute].
17 Terrorism is “premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatants by subnational groups
or clandestine agents.” See Johnson, supra note 15.
18 John Moore, The Evolution of Islamic Terrorism: An Overview, PBS,
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/target/etc/modern.html (last visited Mar. 13, 2018).
22 Id. Guerilla warfare is “military and paramilitary operations conducted by irregular, predominantly indigenous
forces against superior forces in enemy-held or hostile territory.” PATRICK D MARQUES, Guerrilla Warfare Tactics in
Urban Environments, US ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE 1, 4 (June 6, 2003),