Children’s Participation in Holding International Peacekeepers Accountable 19
With regard to TCC peacekeeper military troops and their allied civilians contracted by the
military, there is the possibility of ( i) repatriation of the individuals accused or of the whole unit
by the UN to the TCC, and (ii) non-payment by the UN to the TCC for service of the troops and
allied personnel to the peacekeeping mission. Repatriation of the whole unit might occur, for
instance, where that military unit has been credibly alleged to have included multiple members
involved in widespread and/or systematic SEA of civilians in the country of deployment and the
TCC has not taken adequate accountability measures. On March 11, 2016, the UN Security
Council adopted a resolution urging repatriation of whole units where the TCC had a continuing
pattern of failing to properly investigate and prosecute peacekeeper SEA cases involving its own
nationals (TCCs rarely to date have followed through with accountability measures). 84 Recall that
the universal human right of victims to a remedy for harms—whether in peacetime, during, or
post-armed conflict—is incorporated in a number of international human rights and humanitarian
instruments, 85 and arguably has risen to the level of international customary law. It remains to be
seen, given the UN’s great dependence on TCC contributions of personnel86 to participate in
peacekeeping missions, to what degree the UN will in fact take punitive administrative action
against any TCC ( i.e. repatriation of the accused nationals of the TCC) that does not adequately
follow through with accountability measures ( i.e. criminal prosecution of their own international
peacekeeper nationals who perpetrate SEA of civilians while on a UN peacekeeping mission).
Deschamps points out that the UN has an obligation under the UN Charter and in the
interest of justice to foster and protect fundamental human rights. 87 Yet, international peacekeeper
SEA of children and others in CAR, and elsewhere, continues, 88 and few international peacekeeper
perpetrators have been held criminally and/or civilly liable.
4. THE CODE BLUE CAMPAIGN: IN SEARCH OF PEACEKEEPER
ACCOUNTABILITY FOR SEA
At the time this article was written, there are additional UN, NGO and investigative
journalist reports of previously undisclosed SEA by international peacekeepers of civilians, mostly
children, in CAR. 89 These reports include over 100 allegations dating back to 2013 of SEA by ( i)
international peacekeepers within the UN mission in CAR and by (ii) non-UN peacekeeping forces
operating in CAR under Security Council authorization. 90 Select peacekeepers from Morocco have
84 Security Council Report, supra note 57.
85 G.A. Res. 60/147, supra note 4, at Annex Preamble; See also International Commission of Jurists, The Right to a
Remedy and to Reparation for Gross Human Rights Violations: A Practitioner’s Guide (2006), available at
86 Stewart M. Patrick, The Dark Side of UN Peacekeepers, NEWSWEEK (Aug. 8, 2015),
87 See Deschamps, supra note 6, at 25.
88 See generally Jeni Whalan, Dealing with Disgrace: Addressing Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in UN Peacekeeping,
INT’L PEACE INST. (Aug. 1, 2017), https://www.ipinst.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/IPI-Rpt-Dealing-with-
89 AIDS-Free World, Shocking new reports of peacekeeper sexual abuse in the Central African Republic, CODE BLUE
(Mar. 30, 2016), http://www.codebluecampaign.com/press-releases/2016/3/30.
90 Joshua Berlinger, Holly Yan & Richard Roth, UN peacekeepers accused of raping civilians, CNN (Apr. 6, 2016),