8 Children’s Legal Rights Journal [Vol. 38: 1 2018]
of care towards women and children, pursuant to section 7 of
Secretary-General’s Bulletin ST/SGB/1999/13 entitled
“Observance by United Nations forces of international
humanitarian law" (emphasis added). 26
Note in addition that pre-deployment training for international peacekeepers who will contribute
to a UN peacekeeping operation includes “awareness-raising” about SEA as a violation of the
UN’s Code of Conduct. 27 Further, the UN Code of Conduct includes the following admonition:
“Do not indulge in immoral acts of sexual, physical or psychological abuse or exploitation of the
local population or United Nations staff, especially women and children.” 28
1. 2. 3 The Code Blue Campaign
The Code Blue Campaign has been a significant source of information for the international
community on reported alleged incidents of SEA by international peacekeepers in the Central
African Republic (CAR) and elsewhere. 29 Code Blue is an international campaign with a prime
objective, amongst others, of removal of immunity for the UN’s own peacekeeping personnel who
are alleged to have committed SEA. 30 These UN personnel would include “any non-military
peacekeepers classified as Officials or Experts on Mission” as they would normally be covered
under the UN Convention on Immunities and Privileges. 31 The Code Blue Campaign also seeks a
sanctioning body separate from the UN to ensure the accountability of all peacekeepers who
commit SEA while on a UN mission. 32 Specifically, the Code Blue Campaign advocates for special
courts dedicated exclusively to addressing the criminal prosecution of all within peacekeeping
missions who committed SEA while on the UN mission. The Code Blue Campaign sets out the
role of the special courts it envisions as one of providing for an independent adjudication of the
criminal cases including against those international military peacekeepers charged with SEA while
on a UN mission where the troop-sending country, for whatever reason, will not be handling the
case. In addition, the Code Blue Campaign seeks the removal of immunity for non-military UN
peacekeeper SEA perpetrators (Officials and Experts on Mission) so they can be prosecuted
through the special court vehicle as well. 33 The special courts the Code Blue Campaign proposes
26 Protection from Sexual Exploitation, supra note 11, at point 2. 1-2. 2.
27 See generally U.N. POLICE, Ten Rules: Code of Personal Conduct for Blue Helmets, UN Conduct and Discipline
Unit: UN Standards of Conduct (1999), https://police.un.org/sites/default/files/ten_rules.pdf [hereinafter Ten Rules];
See also UN SECURITY COUNCIL PRESS RELEASE, Problem of Sexual Abuse by Peacekeepers Now Openly Recognized,
Broad Strategy in Place to Address it, Security Council Told (Feb. 23, 2006),
28 Ten Rules, supra note 26.
29 Fact Sheet, supra note 10.
32 Fact Sheet, supra note 10.
33 AIDS-Free World, A Practical Plan to End Impunity for Peacekeeper Sexual Abuse (Jan. 20, 2017), CODE BLUE,
Dec. 30, 2016).