The War on Syrian Girls 231
the theories of self-defense under Article 51 of the U.N. Charter.149 Article 51 states that
"nothing […] shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense if an armed
attack occurs against a [member of the United Nations], until the Security Council has taken
measures necessary to maintain international peace and security."150 Collective self-defense is
applicable when a state requests the assistance of another state because the requesting state is
unable or unwilling to exercise its inherent right of self-defense on its own."151 Many legal
scholars have argued that both collective and preventive self-defense are bases for the legal
justification to use force in Syria by the United States against the Islamic State.152
B. Current Organizations Working Toward Relief for the Syrian Minor Sex Trafficking
In the United States, an undocumented person who is a victim of a severe form of
trafficking in persons is eligible to receive benefits and services under federal and state
programs.153 As governments become increasingly aware of child trafficking problems, proactive
efforts to rescue children from sites of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor are on the
rise."154 However, a "rescue is only the first step in a longer process of victim protection."155 The
removal of children from these sites is often "not followed by efforts to adequately protect these
vulnerable [minors]."156 Child victims are often subjected to additional exploitation after being
"entrusted to an NGO or governmental agency for care."157 This often occurs when the children
are released either on their own or given back to persons who are traffickers, including family
members who were complicit in the child's trafficking.158 One example of such an inappropriate
release occurred in January 2007, when over fifty child trafficking victims in Accra, Ghana were
freed from a brothel by authorities.159 Only hours after the rescue, traffickers recaptured most of
the victims by posing as boyfriends and family members at the government's shelter.160 A 2007
study conducted by ECPAT, a non-governmental organization dedicated to ending the
commercial sexual exploitation of children, found that out of a sample of eighty child trafficking
victims rescued by authorities and placed into government custody, fifty-two of these children
disappeared; the study further indicates that the children were at a significant risk of further
abuse and exploitation.161
Various non-governmental agencies aim to eliminate sex trafficking. Two of the most
influential organizations include UNICEF and ECPAT.162 The UNICEF Guidelines on the
Protection of the Rights of Child Victims of Trafficking provides a rights-based perspective on
149 Id. at 12.
150 Id. at 17.
151 Id. at 19.
152 Sliney, supra note 13, at 18.
153 Green, supra note 61, at 329.
154 U.S. DEP'T OF STATE, supra note 8, at 30.
160 U.S. DEP'T OF STATE, supra note 8, at 30.
162 Id. at 290.