230 Children’s Legal Rights Journal [Vol. 37:2 2017]
prescribed penalty of imprisonment for one to seven years.138 Syria also has not conducted "any
public awareness campaigns to educate employers and workers on the rights of domestic
workers," as of 2008.139 Syria has not taken measures to "reduce the demand for commercial sex
acts," nor had the government taken "any action to target citizens traveling to known child sex
tourism destinations abroad."140 Syria has also not ratified the 2000 United Nations Trafficking
in Persons Protocol, designed to "prevent, suppress, and punish trafficking in persons, especially
women and children."141
IV. INTERVENTION BY FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS AND VOLUNTEER ORGANIZATIONS
Another response to the problem of sex trafficking among Syrian minors is humanitarian
aid from other governments. Humanitarian intervention is an "inherently complicated
proposition," because it clearly implies both that "nation state 'A' is engaged in significant
violations of the human rights of its own citizens, requiring that nation state 'B' and/or the
international community to recognize that intervention is essential."142
A. Foreign Governmental Actions Taken Regarding to Syrian Refugees
The United Nations Protocol has compelled states to enact or supplement laws targeting
the demand for the sexual exploitation of women and children that led to these victims being
trafficked.143 The United Nations has not authorized military force against Syria; however, a
high-level United Nations human rights team recently released a report finding systematic human
rights violations by the Syrian government.144 These violations included summary executions,
prisoner torture, and targeting children during the government's crackdown on opposition
The United States, in contrast, authorized air strikes by American military forces against
the Islamic State in August 2014.146 These were in response to the threat to the Yazidi minority,
who were trapped in deplorable and life-threatening conditions on Mt. Sinjar.147 The United
States continued the air strikes in strategically targeted Islamic State locations, destroying or
damaging multiple Islamic State fighting positions and checkpoints, as well as numerous armed
vehicles, armored personal carriers, and a vehicle-mounted anti-aircraft gun, amongst other
things.148 Under the law of armed conflict, to pursue the Islamic State within the borders of
Syria, the United States must either have the consent of Syria to enter its country, the
authorization to use forces by the United Nations Security Council, or a legal basis under one of
139 Id. at 239.
140 U.S. DEP'T OF STATE, supra note 8, at 239.
141 Id. at 19, 239.
142 Amos N. Guiora, Humanitarian Intervention and Sovereignty Under the Umbrella of Geopolitics, 34 U. PA. J.
INT'L L. 2, 421 (2013).
143 George, supra note 12, at 306.
144 Guiora, supra note 139, at 423.
146 Sliney, supra note 13, at 9-10.