224 Children’s Legal Rights Journal [Vol. 37:2 2017]
commercial sex acts," (2) "the exploiters, or traffickers, who create the sex industry and, in turn,
profit from it," (3) "the states that serve as destination countries, where individuals can be sold as
sex slaves," and (4) "the cultures and environments that tolerate and promote sexual slavery and
Men that often frequent "brothels, sex bars, strips clubs that offer sex for their customers,
escort dating services, massage parlors, and similar types of establishments" desire access to a
supply of girls from various countries, cultures, and backgrounds.54 Some perpetrators even
believe that, by having sex with foreign children, they are helping them to survive and are
contributing to the local foreign economy.55 One child sex tourist stated, "On this trip, I've had
sex with a 14-year-old girl in Mexico and a 15-year-old in Colombia. I'm helping them
financially. If they don't have sex with me, they may not have enough food. If someone has a
problem with me doing this, let UNICEF feed them."56 Approximately two million children
around the world are victims of commercial sexual exploitation.57 Many individuals, labeled "sex
tourists," travel across the globe to engage in sexual activity with children.58 Some men will even
explain away their involvement in the business of sex trafficking by believing they are the object
of desire for their victims.59 Without this attitude of sexual entitlement, the sex trade would
likely collapse and disappear.60
In response to the rising level of human trafficking cases, the United States drafted the
first human trafficking legislation in 2000, titled the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000
("TVPA").61 Congressional sponsors coined the "three P's" within the TVPA: prosecution,
prevention, and protection. The “three P’s” are representative of the legislature's intent to combat
and prevent trafficking of children for sex.62 However, the TVPA has done little to end the
"cyclical scheme" of repeated and interconnected occurrences that end with sexual
exploitation.63 While the TVPA prescribes specific governmental actions that must be taken to
educate, inform, assist, and finance efforts to combat human sex trafficking, child sex victims are
often excluded from obtaining protected status due to certain classification obstacles.64 Even
though child sex victims can receive benefits and services under the TVPA, they must first
"obtain some form of protected status"; the certification of such a status is not available,
however, to "persons who have not attained the age of 18," thus effectively excluding minor
victims.65 At the United Nations World Summit in 2005, various global political leaders
addressed the growing sex trade of minors in a new doctrine designed to govern international
53 Id. at 296.
54 Id. at 299.
55 Marina Colby, Partnerships to End Child Sex Tourism, USAID IMPACT BLOG (July 22, 2011),
59 George, supra note 12, at 300.
60 Id. at 299.
61 Sally Terry Green, Protection for Victims of Child Sex Trafficking in the United
States: Forging the Gap between U.S. Immigration Laws and Human Trafficking Laws, 12 U.C. DAVIS J. JUV. L. &
POL'Y 309, 313 (2008).
63 Id. at 317.
64 Id. at 334-38.
65Id. at 334-35.