academic, behavioral and social-emotional interventions for students.
93 School staff
should redirect students to correct inappropriate behavior and minimize the possibility
of escalating behavior.
94 In recognition of the importance of a safe and civil school
environment, the district or school should have a robust bullying prevention policy that
focuses on teaching instead of punishment and provides means for students to repair
and restore relationships.
95 This section provides a sample of the supports and services
districts or schools may offer to address school discipline and/or bullying situations,
such as referrals to school-based mental health professional or others in the community,
classroom-based interventions, academic interventions, community service,
intervention-related teams that assess student behavior and develop individualized
solutions, and processes for resolution such as mediation or restorative practices.
This section also provides a suggested approach to school discipline and the
investigative process based on the premise that out-of-school suspensions and
expulsions should be used only as a last resort and for legitimate educational
97 The code provides a proposed process for responding to behavioral
incidents at school that emphasizes the investigation and intervention process that
should be followed prior to any decision to impose exclusionary discipline (see
Appendix A). This approach provides a roadmap for how school officials can consider
non-exclusionary discipline prior to using out-of-school suspensions or expulsions.
The code also includes a checklist, which should be used to guide the determination of
when exclusionary school discipline is not appropriate, and when other forms of
intervention and support should be attempted first (see Appendix B). The purpose of
the checklist is to support school officials to make equitable and consistent disciplinary
5. Due Process Procedures: The district or school should implement fair, equitable, and
transparent due process procedures designed to give the student and the parent/guardian
a full and meaningful opportunity to be heard.
100 The district or school should follow
clear and transparent procedures for notifying parents/guardians about a suspension or
expulsion, including their right to a hearing.
6. Procedures Following Suspension and Expulsion: The district or school should provide
alternative educational options during suspension and expulsion.
102 A reengagement
plan should be developed following suspensions greater than four days, cumulatively
103 The goal of the reengagement planning process should be to
consider ways to prevent the behavior from reoccurring, forms of restorative action,
93 Id. at 2–3.