personnel, rather than just stipulating the drill requirement.68 But the Missouri law requires that
all school personnel participate in a simulated active shooter drill conducted and led by law
enforcement.69 The law breaks down what the active shooter drills entail by enumerating
discretionary steps that public school districts and charters schools can take.70 Further, the law
includes, as a final requirement, that public schools foster an environment that encourages
students to report any potential threat or dangerous situation.71
The State of New Jersey enacted the School Security Drill Law in 2010.72 It requires that
every school in the state perform school security drills, in addition to fire drills.73 The New Jersey
legislature provides a frequently-asked-questions (“FAQ”) section in conjunction with the law in
order to clarify the terms, details, and types of drills along with the logistics of performing them.74
According to the language of the New Jersey law, and a definition provided by the law’s FAQ
section, a school security drill is “an exercise, other than a fire drill, to practice procedures that
respond to an emergency situation including, but not limited to, a non-fire evacuation, lockdown,
or active shooter situation and is similar in duration to a fire drill.”75
The New Jersey law clearly articulates the aims of the legislature with respect to the level
of preparedness it expects from the state’s schools. One specific requirement of the state is that
every school holds at least one fire drill and one school security drill each month within school
hours.76 This includes summer months where the schools are open for instructional programs.77
Furthermore, the law requires that school districts keep records of school security drill activity.78
In Arkansas, Senator Missy Irvin introduced the Safe School Initiative Act, which passed
and became law in March 2013, which has since been amended in April 2015.79 In the Act, there
were small changes to the requirements for emergency drill mandates already in place.80 But the
act also includes a provision that mandated the use of active shooter drills in Arkansas school
districts.81 It falls under the Safe School Initiative Act, which also provides for tornado drills,
emergency plans for terrorist attacks, and various forms of training for school personnel and
68 Id. §§ 1, 2.
69 Id. § 3.
71 Id. § 6.
72School Security Drill Law, N.J. STAT. ANN. § 18A:41-1 (West 2015), available at
http://www.state.nj.us/education/schools/security/drill/Law.pdf; see School Security Drill Law N.J.S. 18A:41-1 FAQs, N.J. DEP’T
EDUC., http://www.state.nj.us/education/schools/security/drill/faq.pdf (last visited Apr. 18, 2015).
73N.J. STAT. ANN. § 18A:41-1. School Security Drill Law, N.J. STAT. ANN. § 18A:41-1 (West 2015), available at
74 N.J. DEP’T EDUC., supra note 72.
75 Id.; N.J. STAT. ANN. § 18A:41-6 (West 2015).
76 N.J. DEP’T EDUC., supra note 72; N.J. STAT. ANN. § 18A:41-1.
77 N.J. DEP’T EDUC., supra note 72; N.J. STAT. ANN. § 18A:41-1.
78 N.J. DEP’T EDUC., supra note 72.
79 Safe Schools Initiative Act, ARK. CODE ANN. § 6-15-1303(a) (West 2015), amended by 2015 ARK. ACTS 950; Ryan Saylor, ‘Active
Shooter’ Drills Coming to a School Near You?, CITY WIRE (Feb. 28, 2013, 6:43 PM),
80 Safe Schools Initiative Act, ARK. CODE ANN. § 6-15-1303(a) (requiring training for all students and school personnel for preventing
and responding to acts of violence, terrorism, and nature).
81 Id. § (a)(3).
82 Id. § (a); see also Marci Manley, Conway High School Conducts Crisis Drill with FBI, Local Law Enforcement, ARK. MATTERS
(Jan. 5, 2015, 5:38 PM), http://www.arkansasmatters.com/story/d/story/conway-high-school-conducts-crisis-drill-with-
fbi/33812/oBuyWztFoUmPHddA9Fyjfw (describing an Arkansas parent’s and superintendent’s respective reactions to the
implementation of active shooter drills).