though this was thought to be the next step by the legislature.51 Many universities across the
United States conduct their own active shooter drills at their discretion.52
III. THE LEGISLATIVE HISTORY OF THE ACTIVE SHOOTER DRILL ACROSS THE NATION
Presently, in the United States, only six states require mandatory active shooter drills in
one form or another.53 Those states are Arkansas, Illinois, Missouri, New Jersey, Oklahoma, and
The Illinois statute lays out the different types of drills that are required to be
implemented by all schools—public, private, and charter.55 Those drills include evacuations from
the school or from buses for reasons of fire, suspicious items or persons, or incidents that involve
hazardous materials.56 They also include what the legislature calls “law enforcement drills” in
which the purpose is to prepare school personnel for any event that might require the presence of
law enforcement to deal with an emergency situation, including the possibility of a shooting
incident.57 Additionally, the legislation requires severe-weather drills and shelter-in-place drills,
which require preparation for any kind of severe weather or chemical, biological, or nuclear
Primary and secondary schools in Illinois are required to conduct a minimum of three
evacuation drills with at least one including the local fire department.59 The school districts do
have the discretion to conduct more drills if they choose, with the additional drills accounting for
“other evacuation incidents.”60 One of the more edited parts of the legislation is the language
concerning the mandatory school shooting incident drills.61 Under Illinois law, schools are
required to conduct a law enforcement drill to address a school shooting incident.62 This drill
must include participation by the appropriate law enforcement agency.63 Furthermore, the
protocol for these drills is to be set by the school districts.64 The remaining state requirements for
the drill concern informing the law enforcement agencies.65
Missouri passed the Active Shooter and Intruder Response Training for Schools
legislation on August 28, 2013.66 In contrast to the other states with mandatory active shooter drill
laws, the Missouri legislation provides a more detailed description of how the drills should be
conducted.67 It provides more guidance on how to train the school staff, both teachers and
51 Garcia, supra note 49.
52 See Talia Richman, Campus Shootings Spark Increase in Lockdown Drills, USA TODAY (Mar. 15, 2014, 8:01 AM),
53 Bronstein, supra note 1.
55School Safety Drill Act, 105 ILL. COMP. STAT. ANN. 128/15-40 (West 2015); see also ALICE TRAINING INST.,
http://www.alicetraining.com/what-we-do/alice-components/ (last visited Apr. 18, 2015) (providing information, guidance, and tools
for schools using the program).
56 105 ILL. COMP. STAT. ANN. 128/15-40(1)(A)–(C), (2)(A)–(C).
57 Id. at 15-3.
58 Id. at 15-4(A)–(C).
59 Id. at 20(a)–(a)(1).
60 Id. at 20(a)(2).
61 Id. at 20(c).
65 Id. at 20(c)(1)(B)–()-(F).
66 MO. ANN. STAT. § 170.315 (West 2015).