available by other non-profits that address human trafficking prevention. 188 Given the abundance
of materials and fact sheets on this issue, clear guidelines should be set for what teachers are
expected to know about commercial sexual exploitation, how often they should be trained
regarding CSEC, and when those training materials will be reviewed and updated.
Additionally, schools should consider developing information campaigns to address
CSEC. Similar campaigns have been utilized in schools to advertise and address services for
children who may be homeless. For example, the District of Columbia public school system
employs a liaison for homeless youth at its central office, and each school has a designated
coordinator within the building to address concerns regarding student homelessness. 189 Many
schools also have bulleted “Know Your Rights” 190 posters with the contact information of the
liaison. Implementing a parallel system targeting CSEC youth would provide a framework to
address the needs of these students and also provide a mechanism for data collection. Moreover,
such a campaign would not appear to be a financially burdensome recommendation to implement,
given the existing mandate from the U.S. Department of Education on CSEC generally.
Schools should also consider adopting developmentally appropriate training for students
on commercial sexual exploitation, so they can also be knowledgeable about the risk, and be
empowered to come forward on behalf of themselves or a friend they suspect is in trouble.
Several organizations have already developed curriculum to be used with students, and many also
provide trainings or other activities aimed at working with students. 191
D. Schools Should Inventory and Expand Resources to Provide Appropriate and
Creative School-Based Services to Commercially Sexually Exploited Youth
In addition to improving training standards and awareness, school districts can help
address the impact of commercial sexual exploitation by reviewing their own capacity to address
the potential specialized needs of commercially sexually exploited children, including their
possible need for a small class size, therapeutic services throughout the day, and single-sex
environments. Schools can work to build relationships with community organizations that
provide these services, determine what resources are available in their district, and identify
funding options for resources that may be needed, but are not currently available.
While anticipated cost may be a concern in building this network of resources, the school
system should first inventory the available free or low-cost local supports, and advocate for
funding for services that are not available within the district. There are many organizations
working on aspects of the issue of commercial sexual exploitation, which may or may not be
187 Human Trafficking Awareness Training, DEP’T HOMELAND SEC., http://www.dhs.gov/blue-campaign/awareness-training (last
visited Feb. 23, 2014) (providing double sided pamphlet tailored for educators so they can better recognize the signs of human
trafficking in schools).
188 See, e.g., Project Prepare, FAIR GIRLS, http://fairgirls.org/about-us/about-us/programs/prevention-education (last visited Feb. 24,
2014) (outlining prevention curriculum for youth with risk factors for commercial sexual exploitation).
189 Homeless Children and Youth Program, D.C. PUB. SCHS.,
http://dcps.dc.gov/DCPS/In+the+Classroom/How+Students+Are+Supported/Homeless+Children+and+Youth+Program (last visited
Feb. 27, 2014).
190 For example, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) created a Know Your Rights booklet providing “effective and useful
guidance” addressing “what rights you have when you are stopped, questioned, arrested, or searched by federal, state or local law
enforcement officers.” Know Your Rights When Encountering Law Enforcement, AM. C.L. UNION, https://www.aclu.org/national-security/know-your-rights-when-encountering-law-enforcement (last visited Apr. 4, 2014). The ACLU further developed a school
specific guide for public schools in Washington, D.C. See AM. CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION, KNOW YOUR RIGHTS: A GUIDE FOR PUBLIC
SCHOOL S TUDEN TS IN WASHINGTON (2007), available at https://aclu-
191 See, e.g., WALKER, supra note 26, at 34 (“[S]takeholders in Sacramento have recognized the importance of youth involvement in
CSE programs. Recently, a group of students, including survivors and their allies, developed a youth-led initiative called ‘Students
Together Reducing Exploitation and Trafficking’ (STREAT). The survivors and allies have led awareness activities, developed after
school clubs, and are currently ramping up efforts to provide trainings.”).