when they return to their communities, and be held accountable for this responsibility. This
Article will conclude with some brief recommendations and a review of systemic reform
initiatives that could begin to address the needs of these children.
A. Ensure CSEC-Specific Training for Attorneys Who May Encounter CSEC in Their
Local trainings and conferences regarding commercial sexual exploitation may be
beneficial to individuals working with CSEC youth. The majority of current training modules
and conferences regarding commercial sexual exploitation are not specifically targeted at
attorneys, and focus more broadly on clinical needs, treatment options, and survivor stories. 182
Local bar organizations and non-profits working directly with commercially sexually exploited
youth should offer “CSEC 101” trainings to help ensure attorneys are provided with current
information about CSEC in their geographic area, and to identify what legal tools are available to
address CSEC. In this way, CSEC-specific information could become part of the generally
accepted canon of knowledge for child advocates, rather than an area of special expertise for
which attorneys must seek out discrete training opportunities.
B. Local Jurisdictions Should Implement and Enforce an Agency Collaboration
The State of Washington has implemented perhaps the most thorough interagency
response protocol to address CSEC at the state and local level. 183 Washington’s multi-pronged
model, “Project Respect,” lays out guidelines for case screening, interagency collaboration
(between police, child protective services, attorneys, etc.), and training for any professional that is
likely to come into contact with a CSEC-vulnerable or CSEC-involved youth. 184 It also includes
a plan for data collection. 185 The current lack of reliable CSEC data on the local, state or national
level is one of the greatest systemic barriers to implementing best practices since, absent an
accurate statistical picture of the problem, stakeholders and funders are hesitant to commit to
specific programs or policies. Jurisdictions should look to “Project Respect” as a model of best
practices that can be adapted to other localities.
C. Expand Training Initiatives in Schools and Develop and Expand CSEC Training
Guidelines for Educators and CSEC Awareness for Students
The current guidance from the U.S. Department of Education is invaluable in ensuring
that educators are apprised of their general obligations to screen for youth who are being
commercially sexually exploited. It is unclear, however, how this information is being
disseminated to classroom teachers, special education coordinators, in-school clinicians, and
other school staff who have direct contact with students who may be vulnerable to CSEC. There
is a wealth of existing training materials that could be incorporated into annual trainings and new
teacher and staff trainings. Training materials could include the materials developed by Shared
Hope International, 186 those developed by the Blue Campaign, 187 and materials that may be made
182 See, for example, GEMS’ Victim, Survivor, Leader (VSL) curriculum and other technical assistance programs. Training and
Technical Assistance, GEMS, http://www.gems-girls.org/get-trained/training-and-technical-assistance (last visited Apr. 5, 2014).
183 WASHINGTON STATE MODEL PROTOCOL, supra note 81, at 4-6. Although recommended practices may vary in implementation, the
protocol’s core principals can be translated across jurisdictions. See id. These include: “[v]iewing CSEC as victims, not criminals, and
avoiding arrest and detention whenever possible; [p]roviding CSEC with ‘victim-centered’ services; [m]aking CSEC safety a key
concern; [t]reating CSEC with respect and taking into account their cultural and linguistic needs; [f]ocusing on local, regional and
statewide collaboration and coordination; and [r]elying on data and research, as well as experience, to improve system response and
better outcomes for CSEC.” Id. at 4-5.
184 Id. at 25, 28, 35.
185 Id. at 30-31, 71-72.
186 See Human Trafficking Training, supra note 79 (providing several prevention training modules for social service organizations, law
enforcement agencies and the juvenile justice system).