Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) instruments.179 A court could adopt the instrument that
best fits with other clinical tools already being used by the court evaluators.
A cross-system, multi-agency approach to dealing with traumatized youth requires
sharing the trauma screening and assessment findings. This is necessary for service planning,
monitoring changes over time, and working with other child-serving agencies.
Once a court understands child trauma and identifies the symptoms in a youth, the system
must have the ability to respond to the needs of that youth. Minimally, this would require that
trauma-informed treatments be available in the community and in juvenile justice institutions.
Clinicians in juvenile justice settings can use evidence-based trauma treatments and promising
practices.180 Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is an individual and
family therapy that can be used in institutional and community settings.181 Group therapies
include Structured Psychotherapy for Adolescents Responding to Chronic Stress (SPARCS)182
and Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS).183 Institutional
interventions that work with staff and youth in juvenile justice settings include The Sanctuary
Model184 (used in some residential treatment facilities) and Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for
Education and Therapy (TARGET).185 Once again, these services might best be accessed through
A trauma-informed juvenile court can follow its usual sentencing process. Presumably,
after a youth is adjudicated delinquent, or guilty, the court will order probation to conduct a pre-sentencing investigation (PSI).186 Thus, as an overall juvenile court system response, the trauma-informed process might start with a court clinic assessing the youth and the family for trauma
(including intergenerational) issues. These assessments would be used by a probation officer
and/or case worker in developing a treatment plan that could be incorporated into the PSI. This
plan would identify available trauma-informed services and treatment providers. These reports
179 Resources & Products, CTR. FOR CHILD TRAUMA ASSESSMENT & SERV. PLANNING, http://cctasp.northwestern.edu/resources/ (last
visited Nov. 2, 2013); see About the CANS: CANS Executive Summary, PRAED FOUND.,
http://www.praedfoundation.org/About%20the%20CANS.html (last visited Nov. 2, 2013); see also Measures Review Database New,
NAT’L CHILD TRAUMATIC STRESS NETWORK, http://www.nctsn.org/resources/online-research/measures-review (last visited Nov. 2,
2013) (for a listing of other validated trauma measures).
180 FORD ET AL., supra note 122. See generally National Child Traumatic Stress Network Empirically Supported Treatments and
Promising Practices, NAT’L CHILD TRAUMATIC STRESS NETWORK, http://www.nctsn.org/resources/topics/treatments-that-
work/promising-practices (last visited Nov. 2, 2013) (providing a complete list of trauma therapies).
181 See CHILD WELFARE INFO. GATEWAY, TRAUMA-FOCUSED COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY FOR CHILDREN AFFECTED BY
SEXUAL ABUSE OR TRAUMA 4 (Aug. 2012), https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/trauma/trauma.pdf; Trauma-Focused Cognitive
Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), NAT’L REGISTRY OF EVIDENCE-BASED PROGRAMS & PRAC.,
http://www.nrepp.samhsa.gov/viewintervention.aspx?id=135 (last visited Nov. 2, 2013).
182 SPARCS, http://sparcstraining.com/ (last visited Nov. 2, 2013).
183 CBITS At-a-Glance, COGNITIVE BEHAV. IN TERVEN TION FOR TRAUMA IN SCH., http://cbitsprogram.org/ (last visited Nov 2, 2013).
184 The Sanctuary Model: An Integrated Theory, SANCTUARY MODEL, http://www.sanctuaryweb.com/sanctuary-model.php (last
visited Nov. 2, 2013).
185 TRAUMA AFFECT REGULATION: GUIDE FOR EDUC. & THERAPY, http://www.ptsdfreedom.org/ (last visited Nov. 2, 2013).
186 For more information on pre-sentencing investigations, see CTR. JUV. & CRIM. JUST., THE HISTORY OF THE PRE-SENTENCE
INVESTIGATION REPORT, http://www.cjcj.org/uploads/cjcj/documents/the_history.pdf (last visited Nov. 17, 2013). Multiple trauma-informed approaches exist that could assist the probation officer in this integrative process. For example, ARC is a basic approach that
could provide a theoretical framework, core principles of intervention, and a guiding structure for probation officers working with
juveniles and their caregivers. See Attachment, Self-Regulation and Competency (ARC) Clinical Services, TRAUMA CTR. JUST. RES.
INST., http://www.traumacenter.org/research/ascot.php (last visited Nov. 2, 2013). For a more brain development-related approach, Dr.
Perry offers the Neurosequential Model of Therapeutics (NMT), which assesses a youth and his or her family, integrates trauma and
brain development scores, and proposes a sequential treatment approach for working with youth. See Bruce D. Perry & Christine L.
Dobson, The Neurosequential Model of Therapeutics, in TREATING COMPLEX TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS IN CHILDREN AND
ADOLESCEN TS: SCIEN TIFIC FOUNDATIONS AND THERAPEU TIC MODELS 249 (Julian D. Ford & Christine A. Courtois eds., 2013); NMT,
CHILDTRAUMA ACAD., http://childtrauma.org/nmt-model/ (last visited Nov. 2, 2013).