In addition to the TVPA, there are at least eight other federal
statutory provisions that protect children from sexual exploitation.75
When prosecuting traffickers, these federal laws can be used in
combination with Section 1591 of the TVPA and can enhance the
sentencing term because five of these statutes have maximum
penalties of life imprisonment.76 The transportation of a minor with
the intent for the minor to engage in criminal sexual activity is
punishable under U.S. Code Section 2423(a), with a possible
sentence term of ten years to life in prison.77 Under U.S. Code
Section 2251, sexual exploitation of children is prohibited.78 The
exploitation of children involves the employment, use, inducement,
coercion, or transportation of “any minor to engage in . . . any
sexually explicit conduct for the purpose of producing any visual
depiction of such conduct or for the purpose of transmitting a live
visual depiction of such conduct.”79 This crime carries a sentence of
fifteen to thirty years in prison for a first time violation.80 Each
subsequent violation of this section increases the sentencing term and
can ultimately result in life imprisonment.81 Lastly, the selling or
buying of children by any person, including a parent or legal
guardian, for the purpose of the minor engaging in “sexually explicit
conduct,” is punishable by thirty years to life in prison.82 Although
some states have laws that provide protections in cases of domestic
minor sex trafficking, the federal penalties are significantly higher
and therefore more effectively deter and punish minor sex
75 See 18 U.S.C.A. § 2423(a) (West 2013); 18 U.S.C.A. § 2422 (West 2013); 18
U.S.C.A. § 1591 (West 2013); 18 U.S.C.A. § 2251 (West 2013); 18 U.S.C.A. §
2251A (West 2013); 18 U.S.C.A. § 2252 (West 2013); 18 U.S.C.A. § 2252A (West
2013); 18 U.S.C.A. § 1466A (West 2013).
76 See SMITH ET AL., supra note 12, at 14.
77 18 U.S.C.A. § 2423(a).
78 18 U.S.C.A. § 2251.
80 18 U.S.C.A. § 2251(e).
82 18 U.S.C.A. § 2251A (West 2013).
83 See SMITH ET AL., supra note 12, at 14.