trafficking cases involve a number of jurisdictions and agencies, 287
including law enforcement, the judicial system, and victim service
organizations. It is important for these agencies to work together to
improve the effectiveness of state responses to domestic minor sex
B. Policy recommendations for the protection of victims
In order to effectively protect child victims of domestic sex
trafficking, it is imperative for states to enact laws reflective of
current federal policy that do not require proof of force, fraud, or
coercion as necessary elements for the successful prosecution of
those who traffic and exploit children under eighteen in the United
Further, law enforcement officials, social service agency
workers, and public school staff must be trained by local or national
organizations to effectively identify domestic sex trafficking victims.
Successful victim identification can allow for referral to appropriate
services and protective shelters. 289
There must be state policy to provide access to services and
shelter for victims. 290 These services should be established by statute
and the state or federal government funding must be disbursed to
support the development of the services. 291 Additionally, these
services and protective shelters must offer the unique assistance that
is necessary for this population of victims, including victim
empowerment and breaking of the trauma bond between victim and
Each state should provide for the posting of a national hotline
in all bathrooms of rest areas. 293 The National Human Trafficking
Resource Center Hotline, run by the Polaris Project, offers child
287 See SMITH ET AL., supra note 12, at 45.
288 See WASH. REV. CODE ANN. § 9.68A.100 (West 2013); see also 18 U.S.C.A. §
1591(a)(2) (West 2013) (exemplifying a current federal domestic minor trafficking
law that does not require proof of force, fraud or coercion for prosecution).
289 See HINES & HOCHMAN, supra note 129, at 10.
290 See SMITH ET AL., supra note 12, at 45.
291 See N. Y. SOC. SERV. LAW 447-b (McKinney 2013).
292 See id.; SMITH ET AL., supra note 12, at 70.
293 See WASH. REV. CODE ANN. § 47.38.080 (West 2013).