minor; (2) an individual pays or promises to pay a minor or third
person so that in return the minor will engage in a sexual act with the
individual; (3) or an individual solicits or offers to engage in a sexual
act with a minor and pay a fee in return. 258 Washington’s statute does
not require the elements of “force, fraud or coercion” to prosecute an
individual for sex trafficking of a minor. 259 Thus, the Washington
statute defining commercial sexual abuse of a minor should be used
as a model and implemented as a gap-filler in other states.
In addition, New York fails to provide statutory provisions
requiring the posting of a national hotline. National hotlines can be
helpful to the successful prosecution of sex trafficking crimes and to
provide victims with a number that they can call to gain assistance
anonymously. 260 The Washington statute permits “human trafficking
informational posters” to be placed in rest areas’ bathroom stalls. 261
“The posters may be in a variety of languages and include toll-free
telephone numbers a person may call for assistance, including the
number of the national human trafficking resource center . . . and the
number for the Washington state office of crime victims
advocacy.” 262 The Polaris Project operates the National Human
Trafficking Resource Center Hotline, which is available twenty-four
hours a day, seven days a week. 263 The hotline “received calls from
about 10,000 individuals [in 2011], from every state in the union.” 264
The number of total calls to the hotline increased 64 percent from
258 WASH. REV. CODE ANN. § 9.68A.100(1)(a)-(c) (West 2013).
259 See id.
260 Hotline Successes, POLARIS PROJECT, http://www.polarisproject.org/what-we-do/national-human-trafficking-hotline/the-nhtrc/hotline-successes (last visited Mar.
21, 2013); see also Hotline FAQs, POLARIS PROJECT,
http://www.polarisproject.org/what-we-do/national-human-trafficking-hotline/the-nhtrc/hotline-faqs (last visited Mar. 21, 2013) (explaining that all calls to the
National Hotline are anonymous and confidential).
261 WASH. REV. CODE ANN. § 47.38.080 (West 2013).
263 Carrie Johnson, 10,000 People Called Human Trafficking Hotline in 2011, NPR
(June 12, 2012, 5:00 AM), http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-
2011; see also Hotline FAQs, supra note 260 (providing the hotline’s hours of
264 Johnson, supra note 263.